Hellenization is a term that is commonly used in describing the spread of the culture of the ancient Greeks as well as, to a smaller degree, the Greek language in particular. Throughout most of history, languages have tended to break off from one another. He severely persecuted the Jews, ordering an end to the practice of their religion and decreed that they accept the pagan worship including eating unclean food. What was the center of the Hellenistic world? As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Study Blog Expert Q&A Writing Tools. Jews of the Diaspora had lived in Antioch since its founding in 300 B.C. Hellenism significantly influenced three areas of culture including the government, the daily life of citizens, and the philosophy of society and, at times, was non-intrusive (Scott, 113; 119). Joshua to Jason). He attacked and overthrew the Ptolmaic Empire in Egypt, thus Judea came under Seleucid control. Despite these limitations, the ancient world still amassed enough knowledge to produce many wonders that baffle us even today: temples, palaces, aqueducts, theaters and baths, systems of irrigation, even medicine that did not kill patients (at least in some places). 29 This theory has been championed for many years by Charanis, P.; see ‘ On the question of the hellenization of Sicily and Southern Italy during the Middle Ages ’, American Historical Review lii (1946 – 1947), 74 – 86. More women learned to read and white. Gnostism (simply put, salvation by knowledge), undoubtedly influenced by the syncretism promoted by Hellenism, was just one of the problems Matthew had to deal with in his ministry but a major one. Despite the mixed communities and Greek culture, the Antiochian community showed charity towards the Jewish-Christians from Jerusalem. Yet perhaps the greatest legacies of Alexandria were its philosophers. American Library Association Announces 2010 Winners, Library Closures and Their Impact on the Community. But what do you write it on? Because of Hellenism, there were a variety of religious alternatives, and many different religions were being practiced in Antioch. - Confronting the Hellenism of Today "Man," said the Greek philosopher Protagoras (481-411 BC), "is the measure of all things of what is and what is not." Copyright 2010-15 All rights reserved. It was in Antioch that Paul and Barnabus began their ministry of preaching the Word to the Gentiles. Even more entered Antioch after the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70. Jews in Palestine were forced by Syrian Greek King Antiochus IV Epiphanes to publically violate Jewish law in 168 BC. … Hellenization refers to Alexander the Great's practice of bringing Greeks with him on his conquest and installing them as administrators in his growing empire. First they become different accents, then different dialects, then entirely different languages. This Hellenization might have gone much further had not Antiochus Epiphanes attempted to substitute pagan worship for Jewish. Log in here for access. The result was that Greek culture, philosophy, art and language were quickly spread across the ancient world. Though still fabulously wealthy, Egypt had long since peaked as a cultural agent. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Many were adopting Greek way of life the Jewish community as well as the priests. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. The term “Hellenization” was coined to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander’s conquest. New York:  Paulist Press, 1997. Get access risk-free for 30 days, All rights reserved. Ex. 16 chapters | Create your account. By Sharon Nelsen Today is the last day of the liturgical year. Perhaps the best example of this phenomenon was Alexander the Great's empire. Next we look at four factors that combined to make Alexandria the heart of Hellenistic scholarship: common language, a convenient alphabet, papyrus and climate. Alexander’s Hellenization policies can also be viewe… Through many bloody wars, the Jews finally prevailed. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Greek philosophy was taught in schools—philosophies of Aristotle, Plato, Epicureanism and Stoicism. They modeled these areas after the Greeks. Many Jews felt their ways to be old-fashioned and were embarrassed by their religious practices in contrast to the sophisticated culture of the Greeks. The products of culture spread by Hellenization included the Greek language and writing system, its myths and religion, and its technology and art—not mere ideas but practical and exploitable benefits. It was at that time that the Jews rose up under the leadership of Mattathias and later his son Judas Maccabeus, against their Greek oppressors and eventually set up a Hasmonean State (the name derives from their ancestor Hasmoneus) which lasted until 63 BC. Jason, through bribery, convinced Antiochus IV Epiphanes to appoint him high priest in Jerusalem (a pseudo-high-priest.) An error occurred trying to load this video. In his massive study of the Hellenistic period, Peter Green demonstrates that the effects of Hellenism on local cultures in the ancient world operated like a forced cultural veneer over an otherwise healthy and distinct traditional worldview. Je... Sunday October 4, 2015 A Reflection on Mark 10:2-16 N.A.B. After the conquests of Alexander and under the government of Ptolemy (who ruled from Alexandria in Egypt), certain government practices were introduced, turning the Jewish way of life toward a more Hellenistic culture. The Hellenization of this concept is that a Greek philosophical understanding of how the will operates was appropriated and integrated into the more biblical one. Greek names were given to children in the Diaspora and in Palestine (e.g. These city-states were populated with soldiers and civilians from the Greek world. The land and people of Israel were now part of the Hellenistic world. THE HELLENIZATION OF THE JEWS 523 zation, and began that work of breaking down the barrier between Greeks and barbarians, which, in a spiritual sense, was … After you complete this lesson you'll be able to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Arendzen, J. Much of what was written, especially by Roman writers [11], were digests of knowledge. It broke into several smaller kingdoms almost as soon as it was formed. One area where this prevailed and was brought out so well in James Michener’s “The Source,” was the gymnasium. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements, and these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. 173 lessons Little of worth was produced after 200 CE. He may have spent some time in Palestine dealing with a revolt in Samaria, and it is possible that he met then with Jewish leaders. Coughlin, Christopher A. M., "Effects of Hellenization on the Oral and Written Tradition of the Sefer Yetzirah and the Beginning of the Kabbalah" (1999). However, after the battle of Panias in 198 B.C., Israel came under the rule of the Seleucids and their king Antiochus IV. imaginable degree, area of The Greek influence in other nations and cultures is referred to as Hellenistic, especially after the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4, Alexander established Greek colonies or city-states and military garrisons throughout Asia Minor, Syria-Palestine, Egypt and Mesopotamia. to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E. Food, clothing (some men adopted Greek dress) and furniture were Greek in style and in name. This translation is known as the Septuagint (the Latin word for “seventy”.). © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Anyone can earn Hellenism penetrated most deeply into the larger cities. People also wrote on animal skins, and carved into stone. Imperial administrators tend to impose their language on the states they govern, and member states, in turn, attempt to learn the imperial language. It's light weight, it's cheap to produce (at least compared to tablets and stone engravings), it's also compact and easy to store. Alexander passed through Pales­tine first on his way to Gaza during his campaign to subjugate the Phoenician coast and then on his way from Egypt to Baby­lonia. That is the wonder of the Library of Alexandria; it collected information from across the known world for hundreds of years. Jews made an effort to preserve Hebrew as their main language for literature and religious gatherings. It also allows them to share in the knowledge and information available in the empire. Although Hellenization posed problems in preaching the Gospel, it opened the door to an acceptance of the Gospel by Gentiles. | 8 Alexander of Macedon was the son of Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) who recognized that his neighbors considered Macedon a backward region of little importance and decided to change that view dramatically. For others, their Jewish identity and way of life were thought to be threatened by the Hellenistic culture and cultural assimilation was a great concern in 1 and 2 Maccabees. Greek money was in common use after the 5. “Alexander, the Jews and Hellenism.”  (Online), http://www/notablebiographies.com/He-Ho/Herod-the-Great. Antiochus, however, viewed the situation as rebellion and determined to impose strict Greek practices on the Jews, in particular, Greek worship (Dionysian? While his intentions may have simply been to disseminate Greek culture, it is more likely that his policies were pragmatic in nature and intended to aid in the rule of his enormous empire via cultural homogenization. Cuneiform was written on wet clay and then allowed to dry. In the conquered nations, the influence of Hellenism was manifested in language, government, literature, art and architecture, economics, athletics, theater. Thus, though writing had been invented and refined for almost a thousand years, knowledge was still restricted to people who shared a common language. The Babylonian Exile is the period of Jewish history in which the people of Judea were forced to leave their historic homeland and were relocated to other parts of the Babylonian Empire. Thus, Egypt had everything going for it: a simple alphabet, a widely spread common language and a fantastic writing material. Study.com has thousands of articles about every The result was that Greek quickly became the universal language of the ancient world. when Hellenism was adopted and fostered by the Priestly aristocracy. courses that prepare you to earn The word “Hellenism” means “becoming like Greeks” and is derived from the Greek, As previously stated, all aspects of life were affected by Hellenism and this applied to the Diaspora Jews in Egypt and Palestine. The population is believed to have been between 500,000 and 600,000. “Matthew’s Gospel”. Free Essays; Study Hub. … Alexandria played a role in all of these fields, dutifully recording the progress of the western world. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, The Hellenistic Period: Definition & History, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, CLEP Western Civilization II: Study Guide & Test Prep, Western Civilization From 1648 to Today: Certificate Program, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review, Western Civilization Since 1648: Homework Help Resource, HSC Ancient History: Exam Prep & Syllabus, History 301: Historiography & Historical Methods, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, Political Science 102: American Government. In the summer of 332 B.C.E., Palestine was conquered by Alexander the Great. The Jewish communities of the Diaspora retained only the law and the worship of the synagogue. The effects of Hellenization on the culture of Judaea and first century Judaism and Christianity is not often taught. Though Alexander's empire soon crumbled, the Greek administrators stayed put, and Greek soon became the universal language of the ancient world. After about 120 BCE Greek science started to loose its originality. Papyrus makes an awesome paper. The Greek language became the. However, the greatest impact and adoption of Hellenism for Judaism was in Egypt where the community became more Greek than Jewish. We are faithful to the Church, but we are not theologians; we intend and trust that our individual reflections will remain within the inspired traditions of the Church. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you Hellenism had a strong impact on Palestinian Judaism and reached its peak in the first half of the second century B.C. The surrounding rural areas were largely spared much of the influence of Hellenism. They largely ignored Hellenism and, under Alexander and the Ptolemie… ”How the Greeks Promoted the Blending of Religions.”, http://www.jesushistory.info/cultural_background_of_christianity.htm. “Antioch, the Lost City.”  (Online), http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2007/antioch. The Effects of Hellenism on Jewish Culture and Religion. Hellenism became a tool for unifying a vast and disparate empire by introducing the Greek language and institutions throughout the land by means of founding hundreds of the city-states. Discussion and comments are welcome, but always in charity and respect! Long-term effects of Hellenistic culture. Impressive as a collection of tens of thousands of books might be, it is only a fraction of what your local library holds. Also, when taking part in the gymnasium sports and activities, they were required to exercise and perform nude—a great violation to Jewish law and practice. How did the Hellenistic kingdoms spread Greek culture? Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, List some of the wonders that the ancient world produced, Understand the contributions of Alexandrian philosophy, Comprehend the importance of data collection to fields such as mathematics and science during this time. Denver Catholic Biblical School. Upon the Jews' return from exile in Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national identity by following the law closely. As Hellenism spread throughout the Jewish Diaspora, a problem arose for Greek-speaking Jews. Greek architecture had a major impact on the synagogues and in the governance of the communities. City-States were populated with soldiers and civilians from the death of Cleopatra and the worship of the gospel, opened. Judaism and reached its peak in the first to support Ν Anne Cronican is. Generator Text effects of hellenization Tool Thesis Generator About Judea as early as the Priests carried westward throughout Mediterranean... 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