Seventh-day Adventists believe that death is a state of unconscious sleep until the resurrection. Jude 5-7, for instance, reads: Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day— just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire. 7:15 +; Rev. Rev. Second, we have reason to believe that those in hell will … 32:27, Amos 9:2, Jonah 2:2, Hab. A. DiNoia, Gabriel O'Donnell, Romanus Cessario, Peter J. Cameron (editors), "Nonfiction Book Review: Inventing Hell: Dante, the Bible, and Eternal Torment by Jon M. Sweeney. "For our God is a consuming fire" (Hebrews 12:29) who "dwells in unapproachable light." Even if by "everlasting punishment" is meant "everlasting conscious torment", this passage in itself does not prove the eternal torment of the wicked since the Greek word, "aionios", can mean either limited or unlimited duration. snuffed out in the Lake of Fire (Revelation 21:15) and cease to exist for all eternity. But it is uncertain where the place is" Addis & Arnold (eds). In the Bible, in the Book of Revelation, John of Patmos writes about seeing a lake of fire where the 'beast' and all those marked with his number were placed. He certainly was not denying that it is a place, but instead was shifting our focus to the real essence of hell—what the term 'hell' truly indicates—the self-chosen separation from God. Not one of those passages says hell is eternal conscious torment. Maybe pink bunnies would turn blue if I held them underwater for more than 7 minutes. 12:10 +). ... John says of the Word, “In Him was life” , meaning as Creator of all things (verse 3), He had life inherent. And the parallel in 2 Peter 2:6 says this clearly, where God turned “the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly.”. [69] According to the Church, whatever is the nature of the sufferings, "they are not imposed by a vindictive judge"[69][70], "Concerning the detailed specific nature of hell ... the Catholic Church has defined nothing. 5:5, Prov. [112] Based on verses like Matthew 16:27 and Romans 6:23 they believe the unsaved do not go to any place of punishment as soon as they die, but are reserved in the grave until the day of judgment after the Second coming of Jesus to be judged, either for eternal life or eternal death. [59], The posthumous supplement to Aquinas' Summa theologiciae suppl. The strongest, most explicit, most clear verse in all of Scripture that is used to teach the everlasting conscious torment of the reprobate is certainly Rev. And they are different. [49], The Catholic Faith Handbook for Youth, with imprimatur of 2007, also says that "more accurately" heaven and hell are not places but states. The 'place' or 'location' of hell is secondary, and considerations of where it is should not deflect us from our most important concerns: what it is, and how to avoid it" (, "No cogent reason has been advanced for accepting a metaphorical interpretation in preference to the most natural meaning of the words of Scripture" (Hontheim in, "Theologians generally accept the opinion that hell is really within the earth" (Hontheim 1910). [5] By the third to second century BC, the idea had grown to encompass separate divisions in sheol for the righteous and wicked (cf. ", Other Catholics neither affirm nor deny that Hell is a place, and speak of it as "a place or state". Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special offers. The Conditional Immortality Association of New Zealand Inc. Those who worshiped the Beast will be tormented forever and ever (Rev. Therefore, eternal conscious torment is not true, since God is not immoral. Thus, to return to the Pope's words again, John Paul II must not be misinterpreted when he said 'Rather than [or more than] a place, hell indicates [a] state….' A minority of Protestants believe in the doctrine of conditional immortality,[90] which teaches that those sent to hell will not experience eternal conscious punishment, but instead will be extinguished or annihilated after a period of "limited conscious punishment". Christian Universalism teaches that an eternal Hell does not exist and is a later creation of the church with no biblical support. My thesis is both positive and negative. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter. Ludwig Ott's work "The Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma" said: "Hell is a place or state of eternal punishment inhabited by those rejected by God". 14:9, Isa. [29][30][31] Aristotle Papanikolaou[32] and Elizabeth H. Prodromou[33] write in their book Thinking Through Faith: New Perspectives from Orthodox Christian Scholars that for the Orthodox: "Those theological symbols, heaven and hell, are not crudely understood as spatial destinations but rather refer to the experience of God's presence according to two different modes. See more. [47] Others have explicitly disagreed with the interpretation of what the Pope said as an actual denial that Hell can be considered a place and have said that the Pope was only directing attention away from what is secondary to the real essence of hell. Trust me: It’s been destroyed. 23:15, Matt. J. A number of Catholic mystics and saints have claimed to have received visions of hell or other revelations concerning hell. Imagine the predicament of one who both knows that God is the great love of his life, and that he has turned irreversably away from this love. Pages 66–69 of John-Paul Himka's Last Judgment Iconography in the Carpathians provides an illustrated description of some such 15th-century Carpathian icons based on a northern Rus' prototype (p. 193). . Created free for the sake of love, man possesses the incredible power to reject this love, to say 'no' to God. Ezek. "Eternal salvation" is the result; we do not look for an eternal act of "saving." "[62], It is agreed that Hell is a place of suffering.[63][64][65]. [50], Capuchin theologian Berard A. Marthaler also says that "hell is not 'a place'". It’s not derived from Luke 16, since Luke 16 isn’t talking about the final state of the wicked in hell. They base this idea in other biblical cases such as the "eternal fire" that was sent as punishment to the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, that later extinguished. Even if by "everlasting punishment" is meant "everlasting conscious torment", this passage in itself does not prove the eternal torment of the wicked since the Greek word, "aionios", can mean either limited or unlimited duration. 2:5, Gen. 37:35, Gen. 42:38, Gen. 44:29, Gen. 44:31, I Sam. The simplest is simply some lake of fire where people flop around screaming for eternity, the more complex views vary. God simply reveals Himself in the risen Lord Jesus in such a glorious way that no man can fail to behold His glory. Conscious definition, aware of one's own existence, sensations, thoughts, surroundings, etc. In my previous post, I summarized some of the strongest biblical arguments in favor of terminal punishmen t. In this post, I want to summarize the best arguments for eternal conscious torment (ECT)—the traditional view of hell where the wicked will experience never-ending punishment. The dominant historic Christian view is that hell is a place of eternal conscious torment for rebellious, unbelieving humans (and demons and Satan). For those who do not love God, and who do not love at all, this same "consuming fire" will be the cause of their "weeping" and their "gnashing of teeth." "Empirical Theology Versus Speculative Theology" by John S. Romanides part 2. I grew up believing that the final fate of the unrighteous is eternal conscious torment. [68], Saint Augustine of Hippo said that the suffering of hell is compounded because God continues to love the sinner who is not able to return the love. [98] The first is a place commonly called Spirit Prison which is a state of punishment for those who reject Christ and his Atonement. In this post, I want to summarize the best arguments for eternal conscious torment (ECT)—the traditional view of hell where the wicked will experience never-ending punishment. Eternal Conscious Torment is too horrible and monstrous to be true Eternal Conscious Torment would mean that God is not just to punish finite sin infinitely God is holy and will not allow evil to exist forever. "[103] Mormons also believe in a more permanent concept of hell, commonly referred to as outer darkness. "[39], The Eastern Orthodox Church rejects what is presented as the Roman Catholic doctrine of purgatory as a place where believers suffer as their "venial sins" are purged before gaining admittance to heaven.[40]. I’ve been exploring the debate between annihilationism and eternal conscious torment (ECT) in a series of blog posts. He was, of course, doing nothing of the sort. They base this belief on biblical texts such as Ecclesiastes 9:5 which states "the dead know nothing", and 1 Thessalonians 4:13 which contains a description of the dead being raised from the grave at the second coming. How to use torment in a sentence. A major reason why this passage is believed to prove eternal torment is because it says “punishment,” and punishment, it is argued, must mean pain or some sort of conscious suffering, and therefore must mean that the person is alive and conscious to suffer. For those whose "all" is themselves and this world, the "all" of God will be their torture, their punishment and their death. But after the Lord led me in a prolonged period of studying this topic (mainly from the Bible, but also by reading the best arguments I could find from evangelicals with each view) I became thoroughly convinced that the Bible teaches something else. Are the people who are tormented all the wicked who are in hell, or just a subset of the wicked who “worships the beast and its image and receives the mark” on their foreheads? The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. 57:9, Ezek. (Those theological symbols, heaven and hell, are not crudely understood as spatial destinations but rather refer to the experience of God's presence according to two different modes.). It turns out that his reasons are not first of all to do with God’s revelation in scripture but with a gag-reflex—his moral revulsion against a deity that would preside over an eternal conscious torment in hell. This passage, of course, is shrouded with interpretive questions. For those who hate the Lord, the same Presence will be infinite torture, hell and eternal death. The last part: Hades, a place of conscious torment ; jumped out to me almost automatically that we are talking about a “DUALITY” with the opposites of Lazarus and the rich man.. during life the rich man lived a lavish life but in death he is eternally tormented and in life, Lazarus is a poor man begging for food but in the afterlife he is in a blissful happy place of comfort and rest… The Three Religious Factions That Missed... Masturbatory Worship and the Contemporary Church, 5 Reasons to Attend Eternity Bible College. Romans 2:7-9; 2  Thessalonians), while the general epistles use a range of terms and images including "raging fire" (Hebrews 10:27), "destruction" (2  Peter 3:7), "eternal fire" (Jude 7) and "blackest darkness" (Jude 13). The Unity Church of Charles Fillmore considers the concept of everlasting physical Hell to be false doctrine and contradictory to that reported by John the Evangelist.[109]. "[56][57] Journalist Richard Owen's interpretation of this remark as declaring that hell is an actual place was reported in many media. "Hell is the place and state of eternal punishment for the fallen angels and human beings who die deliberately estranged from the love of God" (work by Fr. (Matthew 8:21, et al.) Norman Geisler, a staunch adherent of eternal torment, objects to this practice of using torment and torture interchangeably. Or since Jesus is the infinite Son of God who died for the sin of believers, this means that unbelievers, who aren’t infinite, must die an infinite death to pay for their sin. Synonym Discussion of torment. 18:9, Jas. [85] Some recent writers such as Anglican layman C. S. Lewis[86] and J.P. Moreland[87] have cast hell in terms of "eternal separation" from God. Again, you can visit the historic locations of Sodom and Gomorrah. First, they widely hold that immediately following a human being's physical death, his or her surviving spiritual dimension experiences a foretaste of either heaven or hell. Jesus here depicts a wicked man suffering fiery torment in hades, which is contrasted with the bosom of Abraham, and explains that it is impossible to cross over from one to the other. Contrary to Western Christianity, both Roman and Protestant varieties, the Christians of the East emphasize the mystery of God in his pre-eternal transcendence and maintain a tradition of apophatic theology, while the technical, cataphatic theology of scholasticism tends to be downplayed or viewed as subordinate. Does that mean that He created Hitler and knew what an evil monster he would turn out to be? The Greek word "everlasting" there is the adjective aionion, which is related to the noun, aion meaning "age". At all events the doctrine of conscious, eternal torment for impenitent men is clearly revealed in the Word of God. Evangelicals and the Annihilation of Hell Part Two by Alan W. Gomes. Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. Eternal conscious torment is immoral by nature; To accuse God of enacting eternal conscious torment would make God immoral. The key phrase is, “the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever.” Matthew 25:41), and those whose names are not written in the book of life (cf. Q97 A4 flags discussion of the location of hell as speculation: As Augustine says (De Civ. Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. Fox, "The Catholic Faith", p. 262 (1983). One of the disagreements between the two views is over the meaning of death. In any case, ECT advocates point out that “the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or not.” The last line is, to my mind, the only part of this passage that may suggest ECT—“no rest, day or not.” The first part about the smoke going up forever comes from Isa 34:10 where it clearly emphasizes the finality of the destruction (of Edom) and not the never ending torment of the city of Edom. Many proponents of annihilationism understand death to mean the cessation of existence, especially conscious existence. However, if you look at the whole context closely, you’ll see that it’s no so clear. I don’t know. More positively: The Scriptures, in particular, the New Testament, teach ECT. Mormons believe that righteous people will rise in a "first resurrection" and live with Christ on earth after His return. In my previous post, I summarized some of the strongest biblical arguments in favor of terminal punishmen t. In this post, I want to summarize the best arguments for eternal conscious torment (ECT)—the traditional view of hell where the wicked will experience never-ending punishment. Second, the parable of the rich man and Lazarus in Luke 16:19-30 clearly shows that the rich man is “in torment” (16:23) and “in anguish in this flame” (16:24). Mark 9:48 is another verse sometimes used to support the idea of eternal conscious torment for unrepentant sinners. Hell is a place of torments. Think of it like a mortgage—at some point, you pay it off and satisfy the debt. Featured Is the doctrine of Eternal Conscious Torment, biblical or not? The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Why Are Millennials Leaving the Church ...", Jesus Was a Jew: Understanding Jesus ...". They define "Gehenna" as eternal destruction or the "second death", which is reserved for those with no opportunity of a resurrection such as those who will be destroyed at Armageddon. "It is certain from Scripture and tradition that the torments of hell are inflicted in a definite place. They are not in agreement on all points, and no council universally recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Churches has formulated doctrine on hell,[citation needed] so there is no official doctrine to which all the faithful are bound. 2. These words include: In ancient Jewish belief, the dead were consigned to Sheol, a place to which all were sent indiscriminately (cf. The result of some cursory (yet I think substantial) musing has been to conclude that Jesus did indeed teach that there is a literal place that has become known as ‘Hell’, and that hell is unfortunately characterized by eternal conscious torment. Rev. Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners, "I just want to point out to current readers that EBC is now fully accredited ...", "I don't think God killed Jesus; but I am beginning to think someone killed Preston ...", "I remember reading a book written in the late 1940s that claimed young people at ...", "First of all, this was from almost a year ago. 32:36a & 39, II Sam. Annihilationists attempt to deny this by claiming that the beast and false prophet represent institutions and not persons and thus could not be tormented forever, but this is not convincing. Maybe this is true, or maybe it’s not. "Hell is traditionally considered a literal place of eternal torture, but the Pope has also described hell as the condition of pain that results from alienation from God, a thing of one's own doing, not an actual place. I’ve heard others say similar things like: since God is infinite, then the only just punishment would be an infinite punishment. As to "eternal conscious torment", there are a lot of differing views on it. At all events the doctrine of conscious, eternal torment for impenitent men is clearly revealed in the Word of God. These verses, it is argued, indicate that death is only a period or form of slumber. The passage never says that “there will be never ending weeping and never ending gnashing of teeth that keep on gnashing, and gnashing, and gnashing.” And since there will no doubt be toothless unbelievers in hell, perhaps this is nothing more than an image that shouldn’t be taken literally. Tartaro:Definition 1. It is the presence of God's splendid glory and love that is the scourge of those who reject its radiant power and light. [17][18][19] Gehenna is most frequently described as a place of punishment (e.g., Matthew 5:22, Matthew 18:8-9; Mark 9:43-49); other passages mention darkness and "weeping and gnashing of teeth" (e.g., Matthew 8:12; Matthew 22:13). It turns out that his reasons are not first of all to do with God’s revelation in scripture but with a gag-reflex—his moral revulsion against a deity that would preside over an eternal conscious torment in hell. Biblical Arguments for Eternal Conscious Torment. [108] The scripture asserts that those who are consigned to this state will be aware of its duration and limitations. No verse in the Bible gives an expository description of what hell is or what it's about. (I Corinthians 15-28) Those who have God as their "all" within this life will finally have divine fulfillment and life. In a parable about "The Rich Man and Lazarus" in Luke 16:19-31, the poor man Lazarus enjoys a blissful repose in the "bosom of Abraham" (Luke 16:22), while the rich man who was happy in life is tormented by fire in Hades (Luke 16:23-24), the two realms being separated by a great chasm (Luke 16:26). 5:22, Matt. Some Eastern Orthodox Christians believe that Heaven and Hell are relations to or experiences of God's just and loving presence. "[45], Pope John Paul II stated on 28 July 1999, that, in speaking of Hell as a place, the Bible uses "a symbolic language", which "must be correctly interpreted … Rather than a place, hell indicates the state of those who freely and definitively separate themselves from God, the source of all life and joy. I believed it and I taught it to others. "[61] Evangelicals Norman L. Geisler and Ralph E. MacKenzie interpret official Roman Catholic teaching as: "Hell is a place or state of eternal punishment inhabited by those rejected by God. "[37] Michel Quenot stated: "Hell is none other than the state of separation from God, a condition into which humanity was plunged for having preferred the creature to the Creator. Therefore, the eternal conscious torment view involves unconditional preservation of … "[36] According to Theodore Stylianopoulos, "Hell is a spiritual state of separation from God and inability to experience the love of God, while being conscious of the ultimate deprivation of it as punishment. Jehovah's Witnesses and Christadelphians also teach the annihilationist viewpoint. Denny Burk: Eternal Conscious Torment Burk acknowledges the difficulty in coming to terms with unbelievers facing the punishment of eternal conscious torment. 38:10, Isa. Day and night is a figure of speech meaning continually (Luke Luke 18:7; Acts Acts 9:27; Rev. [18], Apart from the use of the term gehenna (translated as "Hell" or "Hell fire" in most English translations of the Bible; sometimes transliterated, or translated differently)[20][21][22] the Johannine writings refer to the destiny of the wicked in terms of "perishing", "death" and "condemnation" or "judgment". In death, life and consciousness are gone. The first, Traditionalism (sometimes called Eternal Conscious Torment or Infernalism), is the most widely recognized. In the past thirty years the doctrine of hell has been the subject of much controversy. 23:14, Prov. An interaction with theological, cultural, biblical, and political issues with scholarly bite but in layman's language. [77], The Catholic Church teaches that no one is predestined to Hell, and that the Church's teaching on Hell is not meant to frighten but is a call for people to use their freedom wisely. In this view, the unredeemed dead suffer for all eternity in flames of fire. Question: What’s going to happen to the ungodly according to Peter? In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which, by God's definitive judgment, unrepentant sinners pass in the general judgment, or, as some Christians believe, immediately after death (particular judgment). Thus it is the Church's spiritual teaching that God does not punish man by some material fire or physical torment. 7:27, Prov. Revelation 20:15). 31:16, Ezek. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. Fourth, there are a few references to “everlasting fire” connected with judgment passages (Matt 18:8; 25:41; Jude 7). This is partially true, but the part that is not true is what makes all the difference. Torment definition is - extreme pain or anguish of body or mind : agony. [110] [111] They instead believe that Hell is not a place of eternal suffering, but of eternal death and that death is a state of unconscious sleep until the resurrection. In short, terminal punishment does not clearly spring from every single passage about future judgment, but it does seem to be the best reading of the large majority of them. Their death is final. However, this passage is talking about hades (16:23) and not hell. During various Marian apparitions, such as those at Fatima or at Kibeho, the visionaries claimed that the Virgin Mary during the course of the visions showed them a view of hell where sinners were suffering. 31:15), a place of darkness, silence and forgetfulness (cf. The reality for both the saved and the damned will be exactly the same when Christ "comes in glory, and all angels with Him, " so that "God may be all in all." [60] Robert J. [67] Another interpretation is that the Catechism by no means denies other forms of suffering, but stresses that the pain of loss is central to the Catholic understanding of hell. How to Live by the Indwelling Life of Christ Click here to... Critical Race Theory Examined and Analyzed. 32:22, Deut. For those who understand that they have sinned against love, undergo no greater suffering than those produced by the most fearful tortures. How cruel and bitter this torment of love will be! Isaiah 66:24 does not indicate, however, that people are eternal or that they suffer eternal torment, on the contrary. Well, aside from the case that can be made from the rest of the Bible for annihilationism,6Some also argue that the fate of humans isn’t even separable from that of the devil, and that if this passage proves eternal torment for anyone, it proves it for all who oppose God.there are a numb… This verse quotes from Isaiah 66:24 and mentions both unquenchable fire and worms that never die. Therefore, the eternal conscious torment view involves unconditional preservation of … [88], Another area of debate is the fate of the unevangelized (i.e., those who have never had an opportunity to hear the Christian gospel), those who die in infancy, and the mentally disabled. Why shouldn’t we take Revelation 20:10 as a straightforward text that teaches that, at the very least, the devil will be tormented day and night for ever and ever? 10:28, Matt. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not invite me in, I needed clothes and you did not clothe me, I was sick and in prison and you did not look after me. Of outer darkness and the sons of perdition, Mormon scripture states that "the end thereof, neither the place thereof, nor their torment, no man knows; Neither was it revealed, neither is, neither will be revealed unto man, except to them who are made partakers thereof". [51], Traditionally in the past Hell has been spoken of or considered as a place. "[46] Some have interpreted these words as a denial that Hell can be considered to be a place, or at least as providing an alternative picture of Hell. 14:11, Isa. It is useless to speculate about its true nature, and more sensible to confess our ignorance in a question that evidently exceeds human understanding. The Son of Man will send His angels and they will gather out of His kingdom all causes of sin and all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire; there men will weep and gnash their teeth. Notice that there are five necessary elements to the traditional view of hell: a place in the afterlife, Those who believe in terminal punishment very much agree that there will be suffering and punishment in hell. Thus it is the Catholic Church's spiritual teaching that God does not punish man by some material fire or physical torment. all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire", and that he will pronounce the condemnation: "Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire!" Fox wrote: "Hell is a place or state of eternal punishment inhabited by those rejected by God because such souls have rejected God's saving grace. The strongest, most explicit, most clear verse in all of Scripture that is used to teach the everlasting conscious torment of the reprobate is certainly Rev. The Seventh-day Adventist Church holds annihilationism. First, the images of “weeping and gnashing of teeth” (Matt 8:12; 22:13: 25:30; Luke 13:28) and the “undying worm” (Mark 9:48) are often cited to prove that the act of punishing will never end. And theirs will be "weeping and gnashing of teeth." The dominant historic Christian view is that hell is a place of eternal conscious torment for rebellious, unbelieving humans (and demons and Satan). (I Timothy 6:16) For those who love God and who love all creation in him, the "consuming fire" of God will be radiant bliss and unspeakable delight. "The recent Catechism is ambiguous, neither denying nor confirming the existence of physical torments" - Charles Steven Seymour, "A Theodicy of Hell', p. 82 (2000). It is this pain of loss that is central to the Catholic understanding of hell. They do not acknowledge that this expression comes from the OT, where it has the frequent and regular sense of "destruction that cannot be resisted." Each of the other two theories, fully taught, says … 15:11, Prov. Is this talking about some great rebellion during the first century, or during an end-time tribulation? No verse actually says that. This view is often called Christian universalism—its conservative branch is more specifically called 'Biblical or Trinitarian universalism'—and is not to be confused with Unitarian Universalism. Yes, I believe that He creates each individual and "knows them from the womb," as the Bible says. Verse 5 talks about the “destruction” of those who didn’t believe, which parallels the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, which was…well…a destruction and not a never ending torment of those cities. No verse in the Bible gives an expository description of what hell is or what it's about. [25][28] For one who hates God and by extension hates himself as God's image-bearer, to be encompassed by the divine presence could only result in unspeakable anguish. The Book of Revelation contains the image of a "lake of fire" and "burning sulphur" where "the devil, the beast, and false prophet" will be "tormented day and night for ever and ever" (Revelation 20:10) along with those who worship the beast or receive its mark (Revelation 14:11).[23]. Rev. [58], Writing in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, Joseph Hontheim said that "theologians generally accept the opinion that hell is really within the earth. [1] Theologians today generally see Hell as the logical consequence of using free will to reject union with God and, because God will not force conformity, it is not incompatible with God's justice and mercy.[1]. [102] At these appointed times of resurrection, "death and hell" will deliver up the dead that are in them to be judged according to their works (Revelations 20:13), at which point all but the sons of perdition will receive a degree of glory, which Paul compared to the glory of the sun, moon, and stars (1 Corinthians 15:41). 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Gomes Eastern Orthodox icons of strongest. Universalism, David Bentley Hart explains why he abhors the doctrine of eternal for... And what those flames might be this is partially true, but the part that is the Church. That survives after physical death and forgetfulness ( cf that the torments of hell as eternal conscious torment is immoral! At all events the doctrine of eternal torment, objects to this practice of using torment and interchangeably. Mark 9:43, Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, 12:5! Discussion of the Church ending torment in hades, there must also be never ending torment in,. They reject the idea of eternal fire prepared for the sake of love, say! Speech meaning continually ( Luke 16:19-31 ) — that of never-ending conscious suffering far heavier on contrary! Nature is an opinion hades, there must also be never ending in... Weeping and gnashing of teeth ” signifies anger ( see Acts 7:54 ) is! Rejects such teachings as the eternal fire prepared for the sake of love will infinite... To Live by the scourge of those passages says hell is a place two. 9:45, Mark 9:47, Luke 12:5, matt of terminal punishment never-ending suffering! Psalm 9:17, Psalm 9:17, Psalm 16:10, Psalm 18:5, Psalm 86:13 Ecclesiastes... 25:41 ), a place ' '' that hell is '' Addis & Arnold ( eds.! Led some theologians [ who? torment, on the contrary, the New Testament, ECT! `` first resurrection '' and `` knows them from the sayings of the Church 's spiritual teaching that does! Assumption of Moses and 2 Esdras. [ 84 ] is Matthew 25:46, I! Problem with this line of reasoning begins with the biblical Revelation of divine absence, nor is hell an separation... Holds society together the Mark of the Church affirms the existence of as. Dives ( Luke 16:19-31 ) not mean that he `` will send his,... People flop around screaming for eternity, the “ gnashing of teeth.,... Stages: purification, and what those flames might be what do we mean ``! Guilt: [ 24 ] Lake of fire conscious torment would make God immoral part! Will hold on to their rejection of God takes place in this view is often associated with Protestant. Sake of love will be infinite joy, paradise and eternal life lot. For impenitent men is clearly revealed in the book `` persuasively argued for their sins cited! Righteous will shine like the earthly cities of Sodom and Gomorrah their rejection of 's... That there will be punished for their sins on the contrary, the more complex views vary annihilationist... In flames of fire argued, indicate that death is a place situated below the ground ( cf: is...

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